There are currently 133 names in this directory beginning with the letter F.
A net worn over the face to prevent insects biting the face. This is particularly useful when collecting honey to prevent bee stings.
A political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a government no longer function properly. It is characterised by loss of control of its territory, erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions, inability to provide public services, inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community, widespread corruption and criminality, the intervention of non-state actors, the appearance of refugees and the involuntary movement of populations and sharp economic decline.
A deep-fried ball or patty made from ground chickpeas, fava beans or both, it is a traditional Middle Eastern food, commonly served in a pita, that acts as a pocket. It also refers to a wrapped sandwich prepared in this way.
In mountaineering, a false peak or summit is a peak that appears to be the top but turns out the summit is higher. False peaks can have significant effects on climber’s psychological state by inducing feelings of dashed hopes or even failure.
Widespread scarcity of food caused by factors such as crop failure, population imbalance or government policies. This is usually accompanied or followed by malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality.
A cage made out of a conductive metal mesh to block electric fields to protect electronic equipment from getting damaged during periods of electromagnetic pulse.
It is a way to remember the course of action when you are with someone who is potentially having a Stroke. It stands for: 1. Face drooping, 2. Arm weakness, 3. Speech difficulty, and 4. Time to call the doctor.
Fat is one of the three main micronutrients along with proteins and carbohydrates. Fat is an important element of nutrition and acts as an energy source for the body.
When the body's metabolism is such that it burns fat instead of sugar, it is said to be fat adapted. A fat adapted person can miss a couple of meals without feeling terribly hungry.
A feeling of tiredness, either physical or mental. Unlike weakness, fatigue can be overcome with rest. Physical fatigue is the inability of a muscle to maintain optimal physical performance. Mental fatigue can manifest as somnolence, lethargy or directed attention fatigue.
A fracture in the Earth’s crust along which movement has occurred and involves material on either or both sides of the fracture. A ‘fault zone’ is an area of numerous fractures.
Response to a real or perceived immediate threat causing a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behaviour, such as fleeing, hiding or freezing from perceived traumatic events. It is modulated by the process of cognition and learning and is judged as rational and irrational. An irrational fear is called a phobia.
A anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-sporulating bacterium. Increased levels of fecal coliforms provide a warning of failure in water treatment, a break in the integrity of the distribution system, possible contamination with pathogens. When levels are high there may be an elevated risk of waterborne gastroenteritis. The presence of fecal coliform in aquatic environments may indicate that the water has been contaminated with the fecal material of humans or other animals. Fecal coliform bacteria can enter rivers through direct discharge of waste from mammals and birds, from agricultural and storm runoff, and from human sewage. Some waterborne pathogenic diseases that may coincide with fecal coliform contamination include ear infections, dysentery, typhoid fever, viral and bacterial gastroenteritis, and Hepatitis A.
A type of wetland, fens are a kind of mire, the others being grassy marshes, forested swamps and peaty bogs.
Of German origin literally meaning distance sickness. A deep sense of longing for and visiting faraway places.
A man made metallic material that produces sparks in excess of 3,000°C when struck against iron or steel. This property makes it a valuable fire starter and is found commonly in cigarette lighters and are also available as rods. These are also called ferro rods, fire steel, flint starters, etc.
Length of water over which a given wind has blown. It is the main factor creating storm surges leading to coastal erosion and flooding. Fetch length, along with the wind speed, determines the sea state of waves produced. Longer the fetch and faster the wind speed, the more wind energy is imparted to the water surface resulting in a larger sea state.
Temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body’s temperature set-point - uually between 37.5° and 38.3°C (99.5° and 100.9°F).The increase in set-point triggers increased muscle contraction and causes a feeling of cold resulting in heat production and efforts to conserve heat. Fevers do not typically go higher than 41° to 42°C (105.8° to 107.6°F).
Fight or Flight Response
A psychological reaction in response to a real or perceived threat, harmful event, attack, etc. A surge of hormones are released in the body to deal with such stress and to take the decision whether to face the threat and fight or escape from the situation.
Figure 4 Trap
A combination of three sticks in the form of the figure 4, weighed down by a stone or log to trap animals for food. Extensively used by survivalists, this was perfected by the Native Americans.
Used as a descender in climbing. Usually made of aluminium or steel, it allows fast controlled descent.
Building the campfire by laying out the kindling and fuel. The most common methods are Tepee, Lean-to, Cross-ditch and Pyramid.
A primitive fire starting method where two sticks are rubbed together to create an ember through the heat created by friction.
Basic medical intervention to stabilise the injured before access to a medical facility is administering first aid. It is not about cure, but about preventing further harm.
First Aid Kit
A kit that contains the basic material necessary to address and treat wounds and injuries.
Anything that is used to attract and catch fish. Natural baits in the form of worms or minnows or crabs or insects are preferred due to fish recognising them due to texture, shape, smell, etc. Many fishermen now use synthetic or even electronic baits to fish.
Eyeballs of fish contain a fair amount of water and sucking on the eyeballs will provide much required hydration.
Large, oval-shaped kettle used for cooking whole fish, usually with racks and handles, and tight fitting lids.
Instrument to locate fish by detecting reflected sound pulses on a graphical display to locate fish, underwater debris and the bottom of body of water.
Brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain varying from uncontrolled jerking movement to a subtle momentary loss of awareness.
In mountaineering, it is the practice of fixing in place bolted ropes to assist climbers in exposed locations.
Transmitting messages using a set of two flags in combination of their position in a predetermined and agreed set of combinations is known as the Flag Semaphore. The way the flags are held signify a particular alphabet or numeral. Instead of flags paddles, gloved hands, rods, etc can also be used.
Type of pyrotechnic producing a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion. Used for signalling. May be ground or projectile based, or parachute-suspended to provide maximum illumination time.
A sudden and destructive rush of water down a narrow gully or over a sloping surface caused by heavy rainfall.
A simple type of lamp, which burns kerosene drawn up by a wick through capillary action. It has a fuel tank with the lamp burner attached with four prongs holding the glass chimney attached to the tank.
An insulating fabric made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and used to line garments for cold weather use like jackets, gloves, hats, sleeping bags, etc. Also called Polar Fleece, it is made from 100% synthetic material.
A twisted string that consists of two separate bundles of string hand twisted together.
A hard sedimentary rock. When broken it forms sharp splinters that can be used to make tools like knives and spears. Creates sparks when struck against something made of iron.
Simple footwear with a band between the big and other toes, going around the foot. Named so because of the kind of noise it makes when the sole slaps against the foot while walking.
May be a loop of webbing that has a biner on it attached to the perimeter line on the raft. Standing on top of the upside down raft, the participants hold the line and lean to the opposite side from where the flip line is attached, re-righting the raft.
Overflow of rivers or streams from their banks, inundating adjacent low lying areas. When waters from a source overflow to cover areas that are generally dry, it is known to have flooded. They can be due to heavy rains in the area or a flash flood may occur in an area with no rain but heavy rain upstream. Floods can also be caused by opening up of the gates of dams and barrages.
Historically, a flue is a chimney. Today it means any duct or pipe or other gadget that exhausts the smoke from a fireplace, stove, etc to the outdoors.
It also refers to a piece of material strung up using rope as a minimalist, stand-alone shelter. A fly can be looked at as a tent without walls. A traditional tent is erected under the fly. Modern tents come with a fly as part of the tent system.
Fishing using an artificial bait or lure is known as fly fishing as opposed to bait fishing.
Most commonly used in reference to a small-scale zip line typically used as an item of entertainment. Usually made with rope instead of steel cable to make it easier and cheaper to install, uninstall and transport.
FM (Frequency Modulation)
A way of broadcasting radio signals in the form of electromagnetic waves. In FM broadcast sound is encoded by varying the frequency of the wave while the amplitude is kept constant.
Distance at which light rays are brought to single pointed focus is the focal length of the material being used. Important when lighting fires with a magnifying glass, since the rays of the Sun through the glass have to be concentrated at the focal point for kindling to combust.
A visible mass comprising water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth’s surface. Can be considered a type of low cloud and is heavily influenced by nearby water bodies, topography and wind conditions.
A portable hacksaw that folds back into a handle like a knife. It makes cutting wood a lot easier than hacking away with a knife in the absence of an axe.
The linear transfer of energy in the form of food, from one organism to another. Intertwined food chains make up a food web since most organisms consumer more than one type of food.
A discipline describing handling, preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illnesses. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. The five key principles of food safety are (1) prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests, (2) separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contamination, (3) cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens, (4) store food at the proper temperature, and (5) use safe water and raw materials.
The process of looking for food sources in the wild. Can include looking for both plants and animals, though in survival terminology it refers more to plants while animal foraging is classified as hunting.
A large area dominated by trees, they are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem distributed across the globe, accounting for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earth’s biosphere, and containing 80% of plant biomass. Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones - boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes. Higher elevation areas tend to support forests similar to those at higher latitudes.
A collection of the uppermost layer of mature trees in a forest that often intertwine or touch. Thick, dense canopies can block sunlight from coming through.
Osmosis that directly achieves separation of water from a solution containing unwanted solutes. A lot of research in ongoing on forward osmosis for its possible use in desalination, water purification, water treatment, food processing, etc.
Fire Resistant Army Combat Uniform to prevent extensive burn injuries. Made from 6 oz Defender M® fabric providing fire resistance, durability and breathability.
In the majority of countries free climbing is a form of rock climbing without any equipment or ropes. In the USA, free climbing is specifically contrasted with aid climbing. Like aid climbing, it may use ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls but not to assist progress.
Form of underwater diving that relies on the ability to hold breath until resurfacing rather than on the use of a breathing apparatus.
A form of free and solo climbing where the climber climbs alone without any ropes, harnesses or protective equipment, relying entirely on skill. Free soloists typically climb above safe heights, where a fall would always result in serious injury or death.
Freedom of the Seas
A principle in the international law and law of the sea stressing freedom to navigate the oceans. It also disapproves of war fought in water. The high seas are open to all states, whether coastal or land-locked including navigation, overflight, the laying of submarine cables, building artificial islands, fishing and scientific research.
Art and practice of cultivating balance on a piece of rope or webbing draped slack between two anchor points, typically about 15 to 30 feet apart and 2 to 3 feet off the ground at the centre. This type of very “slack” slackline provides a wide array of opportunities for both swinging and static manoeuvers. A freestyle slackline has no tension in it, while traditional slacklines are tensioned.
Freeze Drying Food
Process of preserving food by first freezing and then warming in a manner that the moisture trapped in the food in the form of ice goes from a solid state to a gaseous state. Freeze drying food affects its texture more than other preservation methods, but nutritional value and flavour stays intact. Being light, it’s great for backpacking or storing in emergency kits.
Water containing less than 0.5gm/litre of total dissolved mineral salts is termed as fresh water. It is generally found in ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, etc.
A lens more compact and thinner than a conventional magnifying glass to capture more light. It can be as thin as paper and is more convenient to carry in a kit for the wilderness. It is a good material to start fires with.
When a rope is tied to another in a manner that allows it to slide thereby being able to adjust the position of the knot without sacrificing the integrity of the knot itself.
Carnivorous, cold blooded amphibians, frogs live in or near water, though some live on land and in trees. After handling, always wash hands thoroughly to clean the toxins released from the skin. As a rule, do not consume brightly coloured frogs.
A large divided leaf and botanically restricted to the fern, but coconut and palm leaves are also termed fronds.
Front Wheel Drive
Engine and transmission layout used in vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.
An early stage of frost bite when pins and needles sensation occurs with the skin turning very white and soft. No blistering occurs. This stage produces no permanent damage and may be reversed by soaking in warm water or breathing warm breath on the affected area.
Skin that is damaged by exposure to freezing temperatures. The progression of frostbite is frost nip, then superficial frostbite and finally deep frostbite, the last being more damaging and permanent, often requiring amputation of the affected part.
A cross between being a useless fuck and a full-blown retard. An exceptionally worthless individual in who multitasking is an undefined term.
The Moon has no light of its own, what we see is reflected sunlight. On its 29-day orbit of the Earth, the shape of the reflected light varies according to its position. When the moon completely illuminated, as seen from Earth, a full moon occurs.
Pronounced “foop-uh” it is an acronym for Fat Upper Pelvic Area referring to the bulge protruding from ill-fitting pants worn by an overweight person.
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