There are currently 263 names in this directory beginning with the letter C.
Inhabiting Central and South America, they are mid to small sized crocodilians and are different from alligators by a lack of bony septum between the nostrils, ventral armour composed of overlapping bony scutes formed from two parts united by a suture and relatively longer, more slender teeth.
In firearms, it is the internal diameter of the barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it fires. It is measured in hundredths or sometimes thousandths of an inch, eg, a 38 caliber firearm has a barrel diameter of .38 of an inch.
Approximately the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1°C. Food products often are required to have their calorific value printed on the label as “calories per serving” or “kilocalories per 100gm”. Nutritional requirements are often expressed in calories per day.
The soft fleshy part between the bark and the inner wood of trees. Pine tree cambium is edible, either boiled, roasted, fried or ground into flour.
A protection equipment used in rock climbing and mountaineering consisting of multiple cams on axles (pulling on the axle forces the cams to spread apart). This is attached to a sling and carabiner. The is inserted into a crack in the rock. If a climber falls, the pull will cause the cam to generate friction and prevent the removal of the unit from the rock.
An insulated material to prevent ground cold from coming in contact with skin through conduction.
Portable, lightweight stove used in camping. Saves time cooking and is much more eco friendly.
Temporary fire at a campsite to provide warmth, illumination, heat for cooking or boiling water, drying clothes, as a signalling device, insect repellent, predator deterrent. Campfires are a popular feature of camping and essential for survival.
Toxic to insects and sometimes used as a repellent. Solid camphor releases fumes that form a rust-preventive coating and is stored in tool chests to protect tools against rust. It is flammable and can be used as fuel for a fire, much like Hexamine Tablets.
Spending at least one night in an area that is closer to Nature, without the encumbrances of modern city life, usually sleeping in tents or natural shelters and primitive structures.
Also known as pencil fish, toothpick fish or vampire fish, is a species of parasitic catfish native to the Amazon Basin. Some species grow to 16in in length, others are smaller. The smaller ones are known for an alleged tendency to swim up the urine stream and eating the penis from the inside. Though a common story, there is no conclusive proof of its authenticity.
Food processed and sealed in air tight containers for consumption later, making it edible for years. A number of methods are used including pasteurising, boiling, refrigerating, freezing, drying, vacuum treating, etc.
A lightweight narrow boat, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, paddled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle. The intended use dictates hull shape, length and material.
Water bottle usually fitted with a shoulder strap or belt loops/clips. May be enclosed in a padded cloth bag. Many canteens include a nested cup.
A foldable portable bucket made out of canvas. It will not sustain the content for long, but good canvas buckets can hold the water for hours if not days.
Combines walking, scrambling, rappelling, hiking, climbing, etc, usually through canyons. It is more technical than hiking down a canyon, requiring specialised skills and equipment.
Capsizing or keeling over occurs when a floating vessel turns on its side or is upside down. The act of reversing a capsized vessel is called righting.
Cooking vessel made of stoneware, ceramic, enamelled cast iron, or porcelain for the preparation of fondue.
Refers to driving to a campsite, unlike hiking where one walks to the campsite. It can use various modes of transport, from two wheelers to RVs. It allows for more equipment to be carried and the campsite can range from rustic to well-furnished.
A device that plugs into the 12-volt cigarette lighter outlet inside a vehicle, through a USB port or simple power cord and then connects to an electronic device to charge the battery.
Though recommended for a balanced diet and a common source of energy, it is not considered essential for those who get nutrition from fats and proteins. High carbohydrate foods include sweets, cookies, candy, sugar, honey, soft drinks, breads, jams, fruit products, pastas and cereals. Low carbohydrate foods include beans, tubers, rice, unrefined fruit, etc.
Capturing carbon and storing atmospheric CO2 to defer global warming and avoid climate change.
Natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores carbon-containing chemical compounds for an indefinite period. Oceans and plants are natural carbon sinks. It is estimated that forests absorb between 10-20 tons of CO2 per hectare each year.
Any steel that is not stainless steel is sometimes referred to as carbon steel. It is an allow of iron and carbon. The higher the carbon content the stronger the material. Many knives are made of high carbon steel.
The main points of direction - North (0° or 360°), East (90°), South (180°), and West (270°).
Type of net, usually square or rectangle, made of thick rope, with cinch ropes at the corners and edges, to transfer cargo to and from ships. They are also used to secure loads preventing them from shifting during transport. They are flexible ladders in an obstacle course. Sometimes slung over the sides of ships to allow passengers to climb aboard.
Animal that gets food from killing other animals, including other herbivores and omnivores.
The study and process of making maps by converting the topography on land onto a representative smaller scale representing the actual lay of the land.
Large deep dish used both in the oven and as a serving vessel. Also used for food cooked and served in such a vessel, with the cookware itself called a casserole dish or casserole pan.
Northern Hemisphere constellation with a “W” shape and located opposite the Big Dipper. A line through the centre star and away from the head of the “W” leads to the North Star.
Small porcelain, glass, or metal container used for cooking and serving of individual dishes.
A nervous condition characterised by muscle rigidity and fixed posture regardless of external stimuli, and a decreased sensitivity to pain.
A twin hulled boat. Lighter than a single hull watercraft and a shallower draught. Compared to single hull boats, a catamaran allows for lesser drag.
Same as a slingshot, it is the name used more by the British while slingshot is the more American usage for this handheld projectile based weapon.
Floating vessel typically with two pontoons on either side, bridged by a frame and is either paddled or rowed.
State of neurogenic motor immobility and behavioural abnormality manifested by stupor. Patients may experience a loss of motor skills or constant hyperactive motor activity. They will sometimes hold rigid poses for hours ignoring external stimuli. Those with catatonic excitement can suffer from exhaustion. Associated with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental disorders, etc.
Large metal pot for cooking or boiling over an open fire, with a large mouth and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.
Underwater diving in caves which are at least partially filled with water. The equipment used varies depending on the circumstances, but almost all dives use scuba equipment.
A delicacy of salt-cured fish-eggs. Traditionally, the term caviar refers only to roe from wild sturgeon in the Caspian and Black Sea. They may describe the roe of other fish such as salmon, steelhead, trout, lumpfish, whitefish, carp and other species of sturgeon.
Small, low, sandy islands formed on the surface of coral reefs from eroded material that pile up.
Arthropods with one pair of legs for each body segment. Despite the name, they have an odd number of pairs of legs, never actually 100. They are considered a delicacy in parts of Asia, particularly in China. Their bite, though painful, is seldom lethal for humans.
Kind of portable grate raised on a tripod used for gentle cooking, away from direct flames. Can be used at a table for keeping food warm on a buffet.
Type of leather, traditionally the skin of the chamois, a type of European mountain goat, famous for its non-abrasive and absorption properties. It is used as a material for gloves, jackets, bags, pouches, fuel filter, household cleaning cloth, etc. Due to its non abrasive properties, it is also favoured for cleaning camera and spectacle lenses, jewellery, etc.
Adding a cotton wick wrapped around a length of matchstick into a chapstick will keep it alight. As the chapstick burns down, the length needs to be rolled out or else the outer casing will melt and the “candle” will extinguish.
An essential carry in survival kits, char cloth or charred cloth is a very good fire starter. It catches a spark and holds an ember long enough for tinder to combust. The material to make char cloth needs to be of 100% cotton.
Like char cloth, char cord acts as a fire starter. Being of higher girth, more char cord can be carried compared to char cloth. The material to make char cord needs to be of 100% cotton.
The black residue remnants of a wood burning campfire. This is after the moisture has escaped from the firewood. During the process of the wood burning, charcoal will be formed with a lack of oxygen. With oxygen the residue will be mostly ash. Charcoal is a very good material for adding to fires as it produces intense heat. It is also used by survivalists as a water decontaminant to remove chemical impurities from contaminated water.
A device that regulates the voltage applied to the batteries from a generator or solar panel. A good charge controller is necessary to ensure that batteries reach the maximum charge and have the longest life.
A toilet that uses chemicals to break down waste. Commonly it is found in aircraft, trains, construction sites, festivals sites, etc. The waste is broken down in the collecting container instead of being flushed to an external storage tank for subsequent decomposition.
Chemical Light Stick. A portable, short duration (few minutes to a few hours) illumination device that activates when the chemicals stored inside the case are broken from within a vial and mixed producing a chemical reaction.
A fine silica rich sedimentary rock which when struck against iron results in sparks which is useful to start fires. When struck against one another conical pieces break off which often have sharp edges, ideal for turning into cutting tools and spearheads.
Building where female chickens nest, lay eggs and sleep. Often with an indoor and an outdoor area.
Occur due to body’s reaction to cold, eg if the skin is chilled followed by rapid warming, or sudden onset of cold water on the skin. It is a small, red swelling on the skin which can be itchy, gradually becoming painful. They usually occur on the smaller toes but can occur on the finger, face and nose.
Method of calculating a ship’s speed based on the number of knots that pass through over a 30-second period, due to the drag created by a floating log tied at the end of the rope. Each knot is tied in intervals of 8 fathoms (47’3”).
Rigging blocks that are so tight against one another that they cannot be further tightened.
Tight grip around the neck, usually with the crook of the elbow, to restrict breathing. An effective way to subdue an attacker.
A severe difficulty of breathing due to an obstruction in the throat. If the obstruction is not removed, the person could asphyxiate within minutes.
First developed in the 18th century, it is a precise and accurate timepiece that can determine longitude by means of celestial navigation, necessary for navigation during sea voyages when there were no electronic or communications aids.
Sewage. Named after the ship’s waste system - Collection, Holding and Transfer. Pronounced “C-H-T” or “chit”, CHT is usually found splashing across a ship’s toilet floors.
A temporary dwelling used by nomadic reindeer herders of Siberia. It resembles a Native American tipi. Chum consist of reindeer hides sewn together and wrapped around wooden poles, organised in a circle.
When someone has been rescued from cold water immersion in a stable and conscious condition, but then experiences rewarming shock or post-rescue collapse, with symptoms ranging from syncope to ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. Deaths have been recorded just before, during or soon after rescue, as well as up to 24 hours after rescue.
An amphitheatre like valley created by glacial erosion. Also called Cwm, pronounced “coom” from the Welsh, meaning valley.
Marine bivalve molluscs. The shell comprises two usually equal valves, connected by a hinge. A ligament provides tension to bring the valves apart, muscles contract to close them. Many species live buried in sand or mud and breathe by means of siphons reaching the surface. Edible raw, steamed, boiled, baked or fried.
The process of filtering contaminated water to remove visible impurities and solid matter. CLarification does not disinfect or make it good to drink, it merely makes it clearer by removing some visible impurities.
Class A Fire Extinguishers
Designed to fight traditional types of combustible materials such as wood and paper products. They are sized by the amount of liquid they hold.
Class B Fire Extinguishers
To fight fires of combustible liquids such as gasoline, grease, or kerosene. They are sized by the number of square feet of fire they can extinguish.
Class C Fire Extinguishers
To fight electrical fires. These types of fires pose an electrocution hazard, so the extinguisher must produce a substance that is non-conductive.
Fine-grained soil that combines one or more minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Malleable due to water content but becomes hard, brittle and non-malleable after drying or firing, making it good pottery material. Depending on the soil, clay can be white, gray, brown or deep orange-red.
Rock climbing techniques and equipment that climbers use in order to avoid damage to the rock. Equipment such as bolts, pitons, copperheads and others scar rock permanently. Various protection devices which are far less likely to damage rock include spring-loaded camming devices, nuts and chocks, and slings.
A sailor tasked with recording details of speed, distance, heading, etc on a slate wipes it clean at the beginning of a new watch.
A lasting change in the Earth’s climate. Global changes usually occur slowly, but abrupt change has occurred regionally. Many ice ages are known to have occurred and more will occur in the future at an interval of 40,000-100,000 years. During an ice age vast areas of land, except possibly the tropics, can become uninhabitable. Currently, the world is existing in an interglacial period. The last glacial expansion ended about 10,000 years ago, and all civilizations evolved later than this.
Also called inclinometer, level gauge, level meter, tilt meter, etc. It is an instrument that measures degree of slope. Can also be used to arrive at latitude using the Pole Star.
A type of footwear made in part or completely from wood. Clogs are used worldwide and although the form may vary by culture. Traditional clogs remain in use as protective footwear in agriculture and in some factories and mines.
Cloud - Altocumulus
White and/or gray patch, sheet or layered clouds, generally composed of laminae, rounded masses or rolls. May be partly fibrous or diffused. When the edge or a thin semitransparent patch of altocumulus passes in front of the Sun or Moon a corona ring appears that is red on the outside and blue on the inside. The most common mid cloud, more than one layer often appears at different levels at the same time. Many times they appear with other cloud types.
Cloud - Altostratus
Gray or bluish cloud sheets or layers of striated or fibrous clouds that cover the sky totally or partially. They are thin enough to regularly reveal the Sun. Sometime virga is seen hanging and at times may even reach the ground causing very light precipitation. These are mid clouds.
Cloud - Cirrocumulus
Composed of very small elements of more or less regularly arranged grains or ripples. In general Cirrocumulus represents a degraded state of cirrus and cirrostratus both of which may change into it. These are high clouds.
Cloud - Cirrostratus
Transparent, whitish, veil clouds with fibrous or smooth appearance and nearly always covers the whole sky. The Sun or Moon nearly always produce a halo. These are high clouds.
Cloud - Cirrus
Detached clouds in the form of white, delicate filaments, mostly white patches or narrow bands. May have a fibrous and/or silky sheen appearance. Always made of ice crystals and the transparent character depends upon the degree of separation of the crystals. When they cross the Sun’s disk they do not reduce brightness. They are often coloured bright yellow or red, pre sunrise and post sunset and light up before other clouds and fade much later. These are high clouds.
Cloud - Cumulonimbus
A thunderstorm cloud, this is a heavy and dense low cloud is in the form of a mountain or huge tower of which the upper portion is usually smooth, fibrous or striated and nearly always flattened in the shape of an anvil. Under the base of this cloud, which is often very dark, there are often low ragged clouds that may or may not merge with the base. They produce precipitation, which sometimes is in the form of virga. These low clouds also produce hail and tornadoes.
Cloud - Cumulus
Detached, generally dense clouds, with sharp outlines that develop vertically in the form of rising mounds, domes or towers with bulging upper parts resembling cauliflowers. The sunlit parts are mostly brilliant white while their bases are relatively dark. They develop on days of clear skies, appearing in the morning, growing and dissolving toward evening. These are low clouds.
Cloud - Nimbostratus
Continuous dark gray rain cloud resulting from thickening altostratus clouds, the layers are thick enough to blot out the Sun. The cloud base lowers into the low level of clouds as precipitation continues. These are mid clouds.
Cloud - Stratocumulus
Gray or whitish patch, sheet, or layered clouds which almost always have dark honeycomb appearance, rounded masses or rolls. Except for virga they are non-fibrous and may or may not be merged. They also have regularly arranged small elements with an apparent width of more than five degrees. These are low clouds.
Cloud - Stratus
Generally gray cloud layer with a uniform base which may, if thick enough, produce drizzle, ice or snow. When the sun is visible through this cloud, its outline is discernible. Often when a layer of stratus breaks up and dissipates blue sky is seen. These are low clouds.
A sudden amount of concentrated rainfall (5 inches per hour or greater), for a limited time, in a confined geography.
Situation when a group performs some task in a severely disorganised manner with poor results. Also called CF or Charlie Foxtrot.
Also known as clotting. It begins immediately after an injury when blood changes from a liquid to a gel to prevent blood loss, protect the wound and aid healing.
Bed of coals in a shallow pit covered with sand or earth as an insulator. The coals keep the sand or earth warm which in turn keeps the body warm. Once can singe the skin if the coals are too hot or the insulation is not deep.
Generally used to indicate a patient requiring resuscitation or in need of immediate medical attention, most often as the result of a respiratory arrest or cardiac arrest.
The lowest point on a mountain between two peaks. Often they lie on the watershed line between two mountains.
An American manufacturer known for their knives, swords, edged weapons and tools. The name has become synonymous with carbon steel knives.
During the winter, in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. one may be at risk of cold stress. Whenever temperatures drop below normal and wind speed increases, heat leaves the body more rapidly leading to serious health problems.
A line of pressure lamps that use kerosene, gasoline, white gas or propane, with one or two mantles, to produce intense white light.
The streams of dust and gas released form a huge and extremely thin atmosphere around a comet. The force exerted on the coma by the Sun’s radiation pressure and solar wind causes an enormous “tail” to form pointing away from the Sun.
A state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awakened, fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound, lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle and does not initiate voluntary actions. A person in a state of coma is described as being comatose.
Military boots worn by soldiers during combat or combat training to provide grip, ankle stability and foot protection suitable for a rugged environment. Many combat boots incorporate technologies originating in civilian hiking boots.
Small icy solar system body that heats up and begins to outgas when passing close to the Sun, displaying an atmosphere and sometimes a tail, due to solar wind and solar radiation on its nucleus. Comet nuclei range from a few hundred metres to tens of kilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust and small rocky particles. The coma and tail are much larger and, if sufficiently bright, may be seen from the Earth with the naked eye.
Refers to sleeping bags indicating the temperature at which it can be used to sleep comfortably without sweating. It is usually the lowest temperature at which a sleeping bag will keep the person warm.
A very lightweight length of twisted metal wire with thumb loops at two ends that can be used to saw wood. Also called a Wire Saw.
In cases of major trauma, like in an automobile accident, or a major fall, the bone might shatter into multiple pieces. If the fracture has three or more pieces, it is called a comminuted fracture.
Also known as the Indian krait, it is a venomous snake found in India and is a one of the Big Four species, inflicting the most snakebites in India.
A way of sending (one-way) or exchanging (two-way) information. Can be through sound, light, contrast or movement.
Thinking that good things are more likely to happen to us than to others, and bad events were less likely to happen to us than to others. Also that common events (such as living past 70) are more likely to happen to us than to others, and rare events (such as living past 100) are less likely to happen to us than to others.
A figure on a compass, map, nautical chart, etc to display the cardinal directions and their intermediate points.
Process of converting organic matter through decomposition and recycling into fertiliser. Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertiliser and soil amendment. Compost is a key ingredient in organic farming. Composting simply requires making a heap of wetted organic matter (leaves, food waste) and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of weeks or months.
A bow that uses a levering system, usually of cables and pulleys, to bend the limbs, giving the user a mechanical advantage. The limbs are much stiffer than those of a recurve bow or longbow, making it more energy-efficient.
The ability of a material to withstand compression or being pushed together before disintegrating.
The practice of carrying a firearm on one’s person without it being visible to others.
A thin rubber sheath worn during sexual intercourse to prevent unwanted pregnancy. However, a condom in a survival situation acts as storage for water, as tinder, as a slingshot band, a fire starter, etc.
Layer of rock that keeps the ground water in the aquifer below it under pressure. This pressure creates springs and helps supply water to wells.
Congenital Insensitivity to Pain
Or congenital analgesia. A condition when a person does not feel and has never felt any physical pain. They can be indifferent to pain or insensitive to it.
Woody plants with secondary growth, representing the largest terrestrial carbon sink. They are the dominant plants over huge areas of land. Majority are trees, a few are shrubs. Examples include cedars, Douglas-firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauri, larches, pines, hemlocks, redwoods, spruces, yews, etc.
Constant Bearing Decreasing Range
An object or ship getting closer but maintaining the same relative bearing which will ultimately end in a collision.
Anything found in water (including microorganisms, minerals, chemicals, radionuclides, etc.) which may be harmful to human health.
Plateau of land in the ocean but underwater. It extends out to the outer edge of the continental margin but at least 200 nautical miles from the baselines of the territorial sea if the continental margin does not stretch that far. The outer limit cannot stretch beyond 350 nautical miles of the baseline, or beyond 100 nautical miles from the 2,500 metres isobath.
Indicate terrain elevations at the same altitude. Essentially a cross section on a map of the terrain to enable depicting elevations at different parts.
Wishful-thinking effects, in which likelihood of an event is overestimated because of its desirability. People engage in more defensive pessimism in advance of important outcomes, in an attempt to reduce the disappointment that follows overly optimistic predictions.
Also called abrasions they are superficial wounds affecting surface layers of the skin. The capillaries just under the surface may be affected and a darkening and swelling of the skin may be noticed.
Loss of body heat due to wind that circulates cold air in exchange for the body’s warmer air.
Australian aboriginal carrying vessel to carry things like water, food, even babies. These are often made out of tree bark.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
The primary standard by which the world regulates time. It is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0° longitude. It is one of several successors and considered interchangeable with GMT.
Making a conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems and seeking to master, minimise or tolerate stress or conflict. The effectiveness depends on the type of stress, the individual make-up and circumstances.
An oval shaped boat made by weaving branches and covered with animal skin, tarp sheet or canvas to make it waterproof. It sits on the water surface instead of in the water, making it susceptible to winds and currents.
A colony of many genetically identical polyps, with each polyp a sac-like animal a few millimetres in diameter and a few centimetres in length. A set of tentacles surround a central mouth opening and an exoskeleton is excreted near the base.
Underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. Grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny, agitated waters. Often called rainforests of the sea, shallow coral reefs form some of the most diverse ecosystems, occupying less than 0.1% of the ocean, yet providing a home to at least 25% of all marine species. They are fragile and under threat from climate change, oceanic acidification, blast fishing, overuse of resources, harmful land-use, agricultural runoff, water pollution, etc.
Marine invertebrates living in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. Important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton.
One cord of wood corresponds to a woodpile 8 foot wide by 4 foot high of 4 foot long logs.
One of the most difficult things to improvise in the wilderness. There are hundreds of uses for cordage, including shelter building, fishing, setting traps, lashing, trip lines, ridge lines, staking tents and tarps, etc.
Core Body Temperature
Also known as normothermia, is the temperature of a healthy, sedentary person. It varies between time of the day, ambient temperature, activity levels and the area from where the temperature is being measured. Usually it varies between 98.2° and 98.6°F. It is crucial to maintain core temperature within this range or either hypothermia or hyperthermia may occur - both equally dangerous.
A proword in radio communications signifying “I made an error in this transmission. Transmission will continue with the last word correctly sent.”
International Cospas-Sarsat Programme is a satellite-based distress alert detection and information distribution system, established in 1979 by Canada, France, USA and the former Soviet Union. It detects and locates emergency beacons activated by aircraft, ships and hikers in distress. COSPAS is an acronym for the Russian words Cosmicheskaya Sistema Poiska Avariynyh Sudov which translates to “Space System for the Search of Vessels in Distress”. SARSAT is an acronym for Search And Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking.
Cotton Ball Tinder
Most adventurers and survivalists carry cotton balls soaked in petroleum jelly to act as tinder. These catch a spark easily. The petroleum jelly acts as an accelerant, increases burn time of the cotton ball, and generates more heat compared to a cotton ball that is not soaked in petroleum jelly.
A canid native to North and Central America. A highly versatile species, whose range has expanded amidst human environmental modification.
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation is massaging of the heart when there is no perceptible pulse or breathing. Massaging the heart through CPR tries to (a) revive the victim, and in the mean time (b) ensure that the brain is not deprived of blood.
Circular depression on the surface of the Earth caused usually by meteors impacts. Typically the rims, edges and surrounding terrain is at a higher elevation than the floor of the crater.
Unlike an impact crater, a volcanic crater is caused by volcanic activity and represents the vent through which molten magma and gases escape.
Freshwater crustaceans that resemble small lobsters. Some species are found in running fresh water, others live in swamps, ditches and rice paddies. They feed on animals and plants, living and dead.
Flat, usually square biscuit made from wheat flour, palm oil and yeast. Cream refers to the method in which the mixture is creamed during manufacture.
Type of lightweight pressure bandage, known for its elasticity, control, uniform smooth pressure and normal skin breathing. Used to offer heat, insulation and support in many medical situations. Crepe bandages form an important part of first aid kits.
Shallow clay container with a little hole in the middle. It is put on fire until well heated, then lifted with a hook and dough is put into it and covered with a sač which is covered with ashes and live coals.
Large aquatic reptiles found all over the tropics. Appear to be similar to alligators. Crocodiles have narrower and longer heads, with a more V-shaped than a U-shaped snout compared to alligators and caimans.
A shoe manufacturer of a shoe made from a proprietary foam resin called Croslite. There are numerous counterfeits imitating the Crocs brand and style.
Cross Ditch Fire
On wet or damp ground, make two shallow trenches, crossing at the centre with one of the trenches directly downwind. Build the fire at the centre of the cross on a bed of green boughs or branches so that air can flow from under it feeding the fire once lit.
Any actual or potential connection between a drinking (potable) water supply and a source of contamination.
Refers to a current spouse/girlfriend/boyfriend who is typically not the same person as the ‘regular’ spouse/girlfriend/boyfriend.
A large group of arthropods that includes crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, barnacles, etc.
Plants with resting buds lying either beneath the surface of the ground or submerged underwater. They are further divided into geophytes (resting in dry land), helophytes (resting in marshy areas or edges of lakes and ponds), and hydrophytes (submerged).
Curse of Knowledge
A cognitive bias that occurs when an individual, communicating with other individuals, assumes that the others have the background and knowledge to understand the subject.
Portable, foldable equipment that builds in a spoon, fork and knife and sometimes a can or bottle opener.
Appearance of a blue or purple coloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to low oxygen saturation in the tissues near the skin surface.
Also called typhoons, tropical storms, tropical depressions, they are rotating storm systems that develop over warm ocean water. 100 to 2,000km in diametre they rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. They have strong winds and produce heavy rain. They weaken after making landfall, but in the process render people homeless, destroy infrastructure, cause floods, etc.
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