There are currently 188 names in this directory beginning with the letter P.
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration running from 0 to 14. pH 7 is neutral, ie neither acidic or basic. 0 is the strongest acid and 14 is the strongest base.
A feeling caused by intense or damaging stimuli, associated with actual or potential tissue damage motivating the individual to withdraw and protect a damaged body part while it heals.
Accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to peatlands which is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet capturing CO2 naturally released from the peat. Peat is harvested as a source of fuel.
A unit of volume or capacity equalling an eight of a gallon. The Imperial pint is 20% larger than the American pint.
A tissue in the stems of vascular plants, composed of soft, spongy parenchyma cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout the plant. In some plants, the pith in the middle of the stem may dry out and disintegrate, resulting in a hollow stem. A few plants, such as walnuts, have distinctive chambered pith with numerous short cavities.
Flat bottom boat with a square bow and stern, used in shallow rivers and propelled by pushing against the river bed with a pole.
A knee-length cold-weather coat, typically stuffed with down or very warm synthetic fibre, with a fur-lined hood.
It is a mound of earth-covered ice found in the Arctic and subarctic. It is a non-glacial landform or process linked to colder climates. Similar to palsas, but larger.
A metal spike driven into a crack in the rock which acts as an anchor to protect the climber against the consequences of a fall, or to assist progress in aid climbing. Pitons are equipped with an eye hole or a ring to which a carabiner is attached which is then attached to a climbing rope.
Acronym to help remember the Emergency Preparedness Cycle: 1. Plan, 2. Organise and equip, 3. Train, 4. Exercise and practice, and 5. Evaluate and improve.
A paddle is used to propel a boat through water. Unlike an oar, a paddle is held by the paddler and is not attached to the boat.
Palsas are low, often oval, frost heaves occurring in polar and subpolar climates, which contain permanently frozen ice lenses. Palsas consist of an ice core with overlying soil, often occur in groups and may develop from ground water without additional hydrostatic pressure. Characteristically found in areas with discontinuous permafrost, and in such areas they may be the only reliable surface evidence of permafrost. They need large quantities of water for the formation of their ice lenses, and therefore occur particularly in bogs.
A South East Asian machete with a 10-24 inch blade and primarily used to cut through dense forests or in agriculture.
Wind resistant, durable wicking fabric with more breathing ability than waterproof membranes, typically found in down jackets and sleeping bags.
A handgun typically with a single chamber containing a magazine of bullets. However, a revolver is also often called a pistol.
Substances that when absorbed in sufficient quantities cause damaging chemical reactions in the body. It is different from toxins (poisons produced by organisms in nature) and venom (toxins injected by a bite or sting).
Usually the male sex cells of the plant, they are small, light, dry protein particles that are spread by the wind to aid pollination.
A single large piece of fabric with an opening for the head, to be worn as a woollen or as a rain guard. Often a second piece is attached to act as the hood.
A rope that is attached to the bow of a dinghy, or other small boat, used for tying up or towing.
Urgency call in maritime or aviation radio communications. It is repeated three times and have priority over safety calls. Unlike Mayday, there is no immediate danger to life or viability of the vessel.
A sport using movement developed from military obstacle course training. Participants get from one point to another, without equipment, in the fastest and most efficient way possible by running, climbing, swinging, vaulting, jumping, rolling, using quadrupedal movements and other movements most suitable for the situation.
A reference tool for maintaining bearing of a vessel at sea. It is a “dumb compass” without a directive element, suitably mounted and provided with vanes to permit observation of relative bearings. It resembles a compass with sighting vanes or a sighting telescope attached. Ancient Arabs divided the horizon into 32 points from 15 stars which rose at approximately equally spaced points of the eastern horizon. The setting points of these stars on the western horizon gave them another 15 points and north and south brought the total to 32. These stars and directions were: N Polaris, NbE Ursa Minor, NNE Alpha Ursa Major, NEbN Alpha Cassiopeiae, NE Capella, NEbE Vega, ENE Arcturus, EbN Pleiades, E Altair, EbS Orion’s belt, ESE Sirius, SEbE Beta Scorpionis, SE Antares, SEbS Alpha Centauri, SSE Canopus, SbE Achenar, S Southern Cross. The pelorus in time gave rise to the modern compass rose.
A tool with a long handle at right angles to a curved iron bar with a point at one end and a chisel or point at the other.
An omnivorous freshwater fish, resident of South America, known for sharp teeth and powerful jaws. They have one of the strongest bites found in bony fishes. Relative to body mass, the black piranha produces one of the most forceful bites measured in vertebrates.
The North Star, the only star that apparently does not move - all other stars seem to revolve around it. Identification of Polaris indicates direction to geographic North or True North.
Order of mammals including very primitive animals called prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans. They have grasping hands and feet (except humans), fingernails instead of claws, fingerprints, see in colour, have larger brains compared to other mammals and adapted to living in social groups.
A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining and is one of a group of liquefied petroleum gases. Propane (either alone or mixed with butane) in canisters is popular among campers as a fuel for camping stoves.
Organic molecules made up of amino acids, the building blocks of life. Essential amino acids have to be supplemented through diet. The body can usually make nonessential amino acids. Our bodies need proteins and amino acids to produce things like enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, and antibodies. The minimum recommendation for protein intake is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body mass in generally healthy adults, more for athletes or those who are physically engaged.
Small, portable inflatable boat and light enough to be carried, including supplies, shelter and other survival equipment. Most carry a single passenger paddled with a kayak paddle that breaks down into two to five pieces.
Rapid spread of infectious disease over a large area … country or continent or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic. Throughout history, there have been a number of pandemics, such as smallpox and tuberculosis. One of the most devastating pandemics was the Black Death, killing over 75 million people in 1350. The most recent pandemics include the HIV pandemic as well as the 1918 and 2009 H1N1 pandemics.
Paracord or Parachute Cord or 550 Cord was originally used in parachutes but became universally used for its strength, durability and flexibility. The outer nylon sheath holds seven inner strands, which in turn can be unravelled to three more individual strands.
A mental state heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality, typically including persecutory or conspiracy beliefs concerning a perceived threat towards oneself, including making false accusations. It is different from phobias, which also involve irrational fear, but usually no blame.
An organism (or person in case of SHTF) that lives in and thrives using the resources of another organism. In dire circumstances these human parasites can become violent and rob its host when resources are limited.
Something that can cause pain in the host where it resides. Typically, an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, fungus, parasite, etc that causes disease in its host.
A highly nutritious food made of a concentrated mixture of fat and protein invented by the native people of North America. It has been widely used by explorers and adventurers for centuries. Primary ingredients are a mix of dried red meat, dried berries and fat. To add to the taste some recipes add salt, nuts, raisins, etc. Pemmican is said to be able to outlast a person, but it will certainly last for about ten years.
The region in which a portion of the light source is obscured. An observer in the penumbra experiences a partial eclipse.
Brand name of a kerosene or paraffin lamp, it is a generic term for pressurised kerosene lamps.
The process of preserving food and increasing its shelf life through fermentation or by adding vinegar.
Synthetic polyester fibres that are stuffed in clothing and sleeping bags for insulation. They are cheaper alternatives to expensive down.
Olympian God of the Oceans and king of the sea gods in Greek mythology. Also God of rivers, storms, flood, drought, earthquakes and horses. He controlled every aspect of the seas.
An animal that catches and feeds on other animals. As part of the food chain, the predator hunts and kills prey for food. When in the wilderness humans become a part of the food chain instead of being on top of it as in the city. In SHTF scenarios predators can be humans who look for other humans to prey on for food, water, medicines and resources.
Single celled organisms displaying animal-like behaviour. Some are human parasites causing diseases like malaria, amoebiasis, giardia, cryptosporidiosis, sleeping sickness, dysentery, etc.
On whitewater sections of rivers, hydraulics that are dodged by canoes and kayaks are often punched by rafts by paddling the raft to give it enough speed to push through the hydraulic without getting stopped.
When a sharp object penetrates the skin you get a puncture wound. A puncture is a wound that goes straight in. Since it is a small entry wound it might look benign on the surface but can cause internal damage to tissues, blood vessels, nerves or other organs if the penetration is deep enough. You can get a puncture wound with the point of a knife, a needle, a thorn, etc.
A simple shelter system rigged up by attaching two pieces of canvas, nylong or something similar to provide temporary shelter. It is erected using poles, ropes, pegs, etc and usually is an “A” frame structure.
Kits packed and divided into degree of emergency and categorised as Primary, Alternate, Contingency and Emergency.
A device that reflects images off two mirrors placed parallel to each other, usually fixed in a tube, so that the observer can see things without being exposed.
The sensation of a ring or spot of light produced by pressure on the eyeball or direct stimulation of the visual system other than by light. Like when one closes the eyes and presses on the lid with a finger.
A move executed by either a sweep or draw stroke, sending the raft spinning with the current. Often useful for avoiding obstacles.
Also called polyethene and polyethylene, Polythene is used for packaging, moulding articles, to manufacture pipes and tubing, as insulation, in textiles and to coat metals.
A double saucepan used to cook porridge in an inner saucepan, heated by steam from boiling water in the outer saucepan.
Indicates that complete radio silence is no longer required and restricted (limited) use of the frequency may resume, but immediately giving way to all further distress communications.
Form of solo rock climbing practiced on sea cliffs at high tide relying solely on the presence of water at the base of a climb to protect against injury from falling. Also known as Deep Water Soloing.
Abnormal mental condition involving a loss of contact with reality. with people exhibiting personality changes and thought disorder, accompanied by unusual behaviour, difficulty with social interaction and impairment in carrying out daily activities.
During navigation, it is invaluable to know how far one has travelled. One pace equals the distance travelled from the back of the heel of one foot from the point it leaves the ground, to the back of the same heel when it hits the ground again.
Two lengths of beads that keep track of the distance travelled using Pace Count. Each bead on one string counts off 100 metres while each bead on the second string counts 1000 metres or one kilometre.
A pack with a strong, rigid frame used to carry objects that cannot be packed in a backpack.
Paddle Board Yoga
Combines Standup Paddling with yoga. Practitioners perform yogic asanas standing on a surfboard or paddle board.
Similar to surfing, paddleboarding is a sport where participants propel themselves with a swimming motion using arms while lying, kneeling or standing on a paddleboard or surfboard.
Paiute Deadfall Trap
This is an Indian trap to catch and kills small animals and is considered easier than the Figure 4 deadfall trap as it is easier to set up. Instead of three sticks in the Figure 4 deadfall trap, the Paiute deadfall trap uses two sticks, some string and a trigger.
Parachute Landing Fall
The five points of the body to contact the ground during a parachute landing - (1) balls of the feet, (2) calves, (3) thighs, (4) buttocks, (5) pull-up muscle.
Also called powered paragliding, it is a form of ultralight aviation where the pilot wears a motor on his or her back providing thrust to take off, in still air and on level ground. They usually fly between 25 and 72 kmph, and can reach altitudes of 24,000ft.
The most common type of schizophrenia, it is defined as a chronic mental disorder in which a person loses touch with reality, dominated by relatively stable and often persecutory delusions, accompanied by auditory hallucinations and perceptual disturbances.
Process of killing bacteria in liquids without the liquid reaching boiling point. It is a good way to disinfect water without boiling it. Once the water temperature reaches above 65°C, the bacteria cannot regenerate making the water potable.
Also known as a field cap, is a soft kepi with a stiff, rounded visor, and flat top, somewhat similar to a baseball cap, worn by the military personnel in the field when a combat helmet is not required.
Like a Lemon Battery, this too is largely for educational purposes. It is a pile of coins (zinc and copper alternately) stacked together with pieces of electrolyte soaked paper in between.
Also known as OC spray (from oleoresin capsicum), it is a chemical compound that irritates the eyes causing tears, pain and temporary blindness. It is used in policing, riot and control, and self-defence, including against dogs and bears.
Permafrost is soil, rock or sediment that is frozen for more than two consecutive years. In areas not overlain by ice, it exists beneath a layer of soil, rock or sediment, which freezes and thaws annually and is called the active layer. Permafrost occurs at an average air temperature of -2°C or colder.
Another form of a lighter that has a metal rod encased around a wick which is kept in a metal case filled with a flammable fluid. When the rod is scratched against a flint on the side of the metal case, the spark generated lights the wick. The flame is extinguished when the rod if inserted back into the case for reuse.
Personal Locator Beacons (PLB)
GPS based emergency positioning indicator radio beacons used by persons in distress, particularly at sea, to enable search and rescue. Also called Emergency Locator Transmitters or ELTs.
Personal Survival Kit
The Personal Survival Kit or PSK contains many of the materials of a larger Survival Kit. Murphy has no sense of humour and you will need a survival kit when you do not have one. The PSK is worn on your person at all times and hence is always at hand when the need arises.
Perspiration or sweating is the process of secretion of fluids through the sweat glands in the skin. Perspiration is the body’s way to maintain temperature through evaporation of the fluids thus keeping the skin cool.
A mixture of hydrocarbons, it was introduced for its healing properties though it has found hundreds of uses since. Apart from being an essential part of a first aid kit, cotton balls soaked in petroleum jelly acts as an accelerant, increases the generated heat in the tinder and the burn time.
A variation to the traditional Figure 8 descender, it consists of a single loop of metal with double prongs jutting out of the bottom. Designed primarily for canyoneering, it allow a variety of friction modes and lowering speeds.
The alteration of materials by sunlight and air is photodegradation. Plastics, for instance only photodegrade and do not decompose or biodegrade. They break up into smaller and smaller particles, but still remain plastic since they are not part of the food of micro organisms. Thus, plastics continue to contaminate the planet for thousands of years.
A painful eye condition caused by exposure to UV rays. It is like a sunburn of the cornea accompanied by a feeling like having sand in the eyes. Can be prevented by wearing eye protection.
Symptom of abnormal intolerance to light manifesting as discomfort or pain to the eyes due to light exposure. Symptomatic cure is to wear sunglasses and wide-brimmed sun hats.
Water will “pillow” as current hits a vertical surface. The craft can be pointed into this type of hydraulic, and with varying degrees of success can be driven smoothly up the vertical surface, smoothly off the side and either into an eddy or into the current. This can be a dangerous maneuver as it can easily flip or dump a raft.
Adult leaves of a pine tree, growing in clusters between one and six, more commonly between two and five. Young needles contain Vitamin C and can be chewed, and can be immersed in warm water to make pine needle tea. Brown needles are good kindling and good insulation.
Pine Needle Tea
Immersing green, young pine needles in a pan of warm water and allowing it to soak turns it into “tea” with a fair amount of Vitamin C.
Pine Pitch or Pine Tar
When pine wood is carbonised, the result is pine charcoal and pine tar or pitch. The tar is used to seal leaks in boats, as a glue, as a waterproofing for roofing, weatherproofing rope and to treat skin conditions.
A type of dry toilet that collects human faeces in a hole in the ground and are the lowest cost method of providing an alternative to open defecation. It comprises a hole (about 10 feet deep by 3 feet wide) in the ground, a floor with a hole (less than 12 inches), and a shelter.
Also known as Arabic or Lebanese or Syrian Bread, it is a soft, slightly leavened flatbread baked from wheat flour. They are baked at high temperatures causing the flattened rounds of dough to puff up and when removed from the oven, the layers of baked dough remain separated inside the deflated pita, allowing the bread to be opened to form a pocket.
The tendency to overestimate the rate of work or to underestimate how long it will take them to get things done.It is strongest for long and complicated tasks, and disappears or reverses for simple tasks that are quick to complete.
Plastic Resin Identification Code
Triangle encircling a number embossed on plastic packaging indicating the type of plastic used. The numbers indicate the following: 1. polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (beverage bottles, cups, other packaging, etc), 2. high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (bottles, cups, milk jugs, etc), 3. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (pipes, siding, flooring, etc), 4. low-density polyethylene (LDPE) (plastic bags, six-pack rings, tubing, etc), 5. polypropylene (PP) (auto parts, industrial fibres, food containers, etc), 6. polystyrene (PS) (plastic utensils, Styrofoam, cafeteria trays, etc), 7. other plastics, such as acrylic, nylon, polycarbonate and polylactic acid (PLA). When a number is omitted, the arrows arranged in a triangle form the universal Recycling Symbol.
Where fast current rushes around boulders and obstructions, creating pockets of calmer water.
A unit of bearing equal to one thirty-second of a circle, i.e., 11.25°. A turn of 32 points is a complete turn through 360°.
Areas with annual precipitation of less than 250mm and a mean temperature during the warmest month of less than 10°C.
Soft insulating man-made fabric made from 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET). It is used to make a range of garments and can be made from recycled plastic bottles.
A favourite among apocalypse predictors it is the cataclysmic and rapid change in the axial tilt of the Earth that will create calamities such as tsunamis, earthquakes, floods, etc. Polar shifts do occur but are not cataclysmic, usually about a degree every million or so years.
Two imaginary points joining the Earth’s axis of rotation. The north and south celestial poles appear directly overhead at the North Pole and South Pole respectively.
Either end of an imaginary line running through the center of an orbit perpendicular to the orbital plane. It is similar to celestial pole but is based on the orbit instead of rotation.
Or plastic bag or polybag is a container made of thin, flexible, plastic film, nonwoven fabric, or plastic textile and is a common form of packaging.
Bridge that uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a deck for pedestrian and vehicle crossing. Most are temporary, used during emergencies.
Rocks that absorb water. Rocks with rounded grains are usually softer and more crumbly than rocks with interlocking grains. Porous rocks tend to be softer than non-porous rocks. Do not put porous rocks on a fire since they might explode and injure you.
A Porta Potty or Honey Bucket or Port-a-John or Portaloo is a portable chemical toilet and is used as a temporary toilet.
Portuguese Man O’ War
A marine creature found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Its venomous tentacles can deliver a painful, and sometimes fatal sting. The Indo-Pacific Portuguese Man-of-War or blue bottle, is a related similar-looking species found in the Indian and Pacific oceans.
Clinging to positive beliefs, illusions of control and beliefs in false superiority, because it helps to cope and thrive.
The ability to analyse a situation where the desired results are not achieved, but still obtaining positive feedback. When considering people we like, we tend to make situational attributions about their negative behaviours and dispositional attributions about their positive behaviours. The reverse may be true for people we do not like. This may well be because of the dissonance between liking a person and seeing them behave negatively.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Cognitive flashbacks and other associated features from a traumatic event can trigger severe stress and negative emotions such as unpardonable guilt. Data suggests that hindsight bias has an effect on personal perception of wrongdoing, in terms of guilt and responsibility from traumatic events. They blame themselves, and, in hindsight, perceive that they could have prevented what happened. It was termed battle fatigue during the first world war and shell shock later.
A chemical compound (KMnO4), it is a disinfectant when mixed with water. Also used to disinfect water by adding 2/3 crystals for every litre of contaminated water and letting it sit for about half an hour.
External portable battery to charge items like phones, tablets, media players, GPS devices, and, with heavy-duty ones, even laptops.
Powered Parachute (PPC)
Also called a motorised parachute or paraplane, it is an ultralight aircraft with a parachute, motor and wheels with airspeeds of about 40-60 kmph, operating safely to about 10,000ft.
Condensation of water vapour in the atmosphere that falls to the Earth as rain, sleet, snow or hail.
A form of bandage intended to compress a wound in order to prevent excessive blood loss and allow the blood to clot.
Specific points in the body which when pressed helps control the flow of arterial blood. There are eleven points in the human body where the arteries are close to the surface of the skin and knowing these locations help control arterial bleeding which results in a lot of blood loss in a very short time leading to eventual death.
Prickly Pear Cactus
Edible plant but if one is not careful the zillion thorns can real hurt. Both the pads and the fruit, once de-thorned are edible and a good source of fluids in the desert.
The degree of longitude corresponding to 0° and going through Greenwich, near London. Longitudes East and West of the Prime Meridian are denoted by their corresponding number and suffixed with the letters E or W respectively.
Living without depending on modern amenities, facilities and public utilities. Living as our primitive ancestors and forefathers lived, hunting and gathering and being generally self sufficient and self contained.
The cardinals and ordinals considered together, that is N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Each principal wind is 45° from its neighbour. The principal winds form the basic eight-wind compass rose.
A compass with a mirror designed to allow a user to see both distant objects being sighted and the compass face at the same time.
A length of aluminium foil from a cigarette pack or from a chewing gum wrapper attached to two end of a battery will conduct electricity through the foil and end up combusting the paper attached to the foil. This can then be used to light a fire.
Or prowords are words or phrases limited to radio telephone procedure used to facilitate communication by conveying information in a condensed standard verbal format.
Tendency to falsely project current preferences onto a future event, particularly when assessments are contaminated by current emotional state.
Person who has a disregard for laws and social mores, the rights of others, does not feel remorse or guilt and has a tendency to display violent behavior and is prone to emotional outbursts. They are unable to form emotional attachments or feel real empathy with others, although they might possess charming personalities. They are manipulative and can easily gain people’s trust and appear normal to unsuspecting people.
The process of removing all undesirable chemicals, contaminants, bacteria, viruses, solids, etc from contaminated water is the process of purification. Purification goes beyond disinfection of water.
A Pyramid Fire is called an upside down fire because it burns from the top down. It starts with a base of larger logs at the base with the next layer on top of it laid with slightly smaller logs at right angles to the layer below and so on and so forth till the top layer laid with kindling and the final layer comprising tinder. This fire lay contains the fire within its own footprint better than other lays and requires less maintenance.
It is a fast-moving (speeds of up to 700 kmph) current of hot gas and rock moving away from a volcano. It can reach temperatures of about 1,000°C. They normally hug the ground and travel downhill. It is a common and devastating result of certain explosive volcanic eruptions.
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